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September 29, 2004

流れのふしぎ

nagareno_husigi.jpg
 【今週の一冊】
 ●『流れのふしぎ』

  編集:日本機械学会流体(講談社)
   2004.08 / ¥903

-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆
 『難しい理屈はさて置いて、「流れ」を楽しんだり、
              そのふしぎさに、まず触れてみてください』
-----------------------------------
 今も大して変わりませんが、特に学生時代は「流体工学」がニガテでした。
 
 教科書は、数学と見紛う程の数式のオンパレードで、試験問題を解こうとす
 ると、どの数式が当てはまるのか見当がつかない。
 そのうち粘ったり(粘性)、潰れたり(圧縮性)した日にゃ、どこぞの世界
 のお話じゃ、とお手上げでした。
 
 一方で、身の回りには、流体に関する事柄が日常的に多々起きています。
 
 先日の美浜原発の事故も、冷却配管中の「蒸気」という流体に起因した惨事
 です。
 また、金メダルラッシュに沸いたアテネでの日本水泳陣の水着にも、水の抵
 抗を減らす工夫が施されていました。
 
 本書は、そんな身近でありながら、正に「つかみどころがない」流体の性質
 を、簡単にできる遊びなどを通して「実感」できるよう解説しています。
 
 例えば、前述の美浜原発の配管破裂が起きたのは、オリフィス(管の一部を
 狭めた絞り)の下流に発生したキャビテーションによる腐食が原因と見られ
 ています。
 
 ・・こう書くと、分かった気にはなりますが、「キャビテーション」を見た
 ことありますか?
 
 まず、透明なホースを蛇口に取り付け、水の通り道ができるだけ細くなるよ
 うに、ホースの一部を潰します。
 
 蛇口を少しずつ開けて流量を増やしていくと、泡が発生し、シャーという音
 がします。
 これが「キャビテーション」であり、水が沸騰しているのです。
 
 実に簡単なことですが、これが「沸騰」だと言われたり、こんな泡が分厚い
 鋼管に穴をあけるとなると、思わず「へぇ~」。
 
 「そりゃまたなんで?」と興味が出てくると、飽和蒸気圧やベルヌーイの定
 理といった流体力学の数式が、生き生きと語りかけてきます。
 
 こうして理論と体験(実感!)を対にして理解をしていくと、流体力学は面
 白い・・かも。
 
 ちょっと時期を逸してしまいましたが、夏休みの自由研究などで、本書で紹
 介されている遊び(実験)をお子さんと楽しんで、「何でこうなるかってい
 うとやなぁ・・」と教えれば、お父さんの株が上がること、間違いなし!
 
 例えば・・
 
 ・紙の帆を立てたヨットを早く動かすのは、追い風?向かい風?
 
 ・湯飲み茶碗の中の茶葉は、かき混ぜると外側に寄る?真ん中に集まる?
 
 ・5円玉の穴に水を張って新聞を覗いたら、見える字は大きい?小さい?
 
 などなど、(流体力学的に)ためしてガッテンしてみましょう。
───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 まずはお茶と5円玉、そしておもちゃのヨットで遊んでみよう。
 次に流体力学の教科書を開いて、遠心力と表面張力、流線曲率の定理を思い
 出そう。
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 炎 |   | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 ◎ 目 次 ◎
 1.流体とは 2.粘性 3.圧縮性 4.空気の質量 5.物体まわりの流れ
 6.圧力 7.水深と圧力 8.浮力1 9.浮力2 10.渦 11.表面張力1
 12.表面張力2 13.層流と乱流 14.キャビテーション 15.加速度運動1
 16.加速度運動2 17.流体のエネルギー 18.ベルヌーイの定理
 19.ピトー管 20.ジェット推進 21.流線曲率の定理 22.コアンダ効果
 23.はく離1 24.はく離2 25.境界層 26.流線形 27.揚力1 28.揚力2
 29.マグナス効果 30.はく離渦 31.管摩擦損失 32.絞り 33.回転翼
 34.付加質量

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