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June 29, 2005

ムダとり

mudatori
 【今週の一冊】
 ●『ムダとり』
  現場の変革、最強の経営

  著:山田日登志(幻冬舎)
   2002.04 / ¥1,400

-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆
 『ムダとりは、明日やることを考えるのではなく、今日やることを考える。
 
              それを毎日続けることで実力をつけるのだ。』
-----------------------------------
 中部国際空港や郵便局、最近は学校の運営にまで「カイゼン」が取り入れら
 れ、「トヨタ生産方式」のセンセイは引っ張りだこです。
 
 トヨタ生産方式の生みの親、大野耐一氏については、以前に紹介しましたが
 (http://tinyurl.com/ca9ky)、今回は大野氏から薫陶を受けた「カイゼン」
 の伝道師、山田日登志氏の著書です。
 
 ソニー、キャノン、NEC、三洋電機など、名立たる企業の現場を再生した
 「ムダとり」の手腕を、覗いてみましょう。
 
 
 生産現場における「ムダ」とは何でしょう?
 
 山田氏は分かりやすく、3つにまとめています。
 
 まず一つ目の「停滞のムダ」とは、材料、仕掛品、製品が停滞していること
 で、それをどう少なくするかを考えるところに、ムダが見えてきます。
 
 次に「運搬のムダ」が挙げられ、守衛室の前を通って材料が入って、製品と
 して出て行くまでの間、モノをどれだけリフトや手で運んだところで1円も
 儲からないのであって、「工場内の運搬はすべて悪としてなくせ!」と言い
 切ります。
 
 最後に「動作のムダ」があり、たとえば部品を右の作業台から左へ移すと、
 1個2秒のロスでも、5000個扱えば時間単位の損失になります。
 
 
 これらの視点から編み出されたのが「一人屋台生産方式」や「セル生産方式」
 なのです。
 
 従来のベルトコンベアーによる大量生産で生じていた、作業スピードの差に
 よる仕掛=「停滞のムダ」を省き、コンベアーという「搬送のムダ」を除き、
 手の動きを最小限にして「動作のムダ」をなくす。
 
 その結果、鳥取三洋電機の工場では、5ヶ月間で364人もの工数が減ったの
 です。
 
 
 一方で、「ムダを省く」「標準動作」とか、「多能工化」と聞くと、「秒単
 位で管理をされて、しかもいろんなことをやらされるのはシンドイ!」と非
 難する声も聞こえてきます。
 
 しかし、ベルトコンベアー方式の生産では、同じ作業を長時間繰り返し、人
 間を「単能工」の枠に押し込んで、せっかくの「向上心」や「意欲」を奪っ
 ていたのではないか。
 
 また、ムダがない動作、とは、最も楽な動作であり、スポーツのように鍛錬
 することで、動作は洗練されていきます。
 
 
 「ムダとり」は、決して生産性重視の非情な論理ではなく、また利益優先で、
 労働力を酷使するシステムでもありません。
 
 人間を大事にする、幸福を追求する考え方なのです。
 
 
 冒頭の言葉をはじめ、章の合間合間に収められた、35の熱い「山田語録」は、
 氏が長年のコンサルタントの中で発した珠玉の言葉です。
 
 その輝かしい実績とともに、説得力を持って「ガツン」と響きます。
 ----------------------------------
 ◇ カンドコロ! ◇
 
 「ムダとり」の指導で、山田氏が必ず見るのは、一番に「出荷」、次に「生
 産」の現場だ。
 
 生産計画は工場で立派に管理していても、出荷はロジスティックスとか外注
 先が工場の支持で行っているところが多い。
 
 さほど重要視していないのだ。
 
 結果、お客様の声や事情など、ほとんど考えていないことがある。
 
 そんなところでは、お客さんの欲しい商品は出荷できず、いらない商品は在
 庫の山で、倉庫を占領しているケースが多い。
 
 人やモノが多いところには、必ずといっていいほどムダがある。

───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 山のような在庫を抱えるならば、生産を止めたほうが負担は少ない。
 いざとなれば「生産しない勇気」を持っているか。
 
 オフィスワークも「標準作業」「生産管理」「サイクルタイム」を決めて、
 意識すれば生産性は上がる。
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 炎 | 火 | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 ◎ 目 次 ◎
 第1章 「ムダとり」とはなにか
 第2章 脱「大量生産=分業」宣言
 第3章 「ムダとり」を成功させる経営とは
 第4章 なぜあなたにはムダが見えないのか
 第5章 常識を打ち破らなければ組織は変わらない

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» ★★★★「現場の変革、最強の経営ムダとり」山田日登志、幻冬舎 [本のソムリエ提供「一日一冊:読書日記」]
最近、読者からのメールが多い。うれしいやら、悲し・・、やっぱりうれしい。━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━【今日の名著】───────────────────────────────────「現場の変革、最強の経営ム...... [Read More]

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