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September 28, 2005

テクノロジストの条件

technorogist
 【今週の一冊】
 ●『テクノロジストの条件』
 はじめて読むドラッカー (技術編)

  著:P.F.ドラッカー 翻訳:上田 惇生(ダイヤモンド社)
   2005.7 / ¥1,890

-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆

 『若者のなかでも最も有能な者、最も知的な資質に恵まれた者、
      最も聡明な者にこそ、知識に裏付けられた技能を使う
             テクノロジストとしての能力をもってほしい。』

-----------------------------------
 経済や社会学の大家であるドラッカーは、「ものづくりの技術が文明をつく
 る」と説き、技術のマネジメントにも力を入れて著しています。
 
 彼の技術に関する著述をまとめた本書は、理系のためのドラッカー入門であ
 り、同時に文系のための技術論でもあり、それらを包含して「技術」の行く
 先を示す羅針盤となる、貴重な一冊です。
 
 
 今日のIT革命ほど、歴史上かつてないほど進行が早く、大きな影響を与え
 たものはないと考えがちですが、実は、かつての産業革命もほとんど同じス
 ピードで進行していました。
 
 ワットの蒸気機関が、はじめて綿紡績に使われた1785年からの約40年間は、
 産業革命といっても、それまで存在していた製品の機械化だけでした。
 
 ところが1829年に、まったくの新産業として鉄道が現れ、世界の経済、社会、
 そして政治を一変させました。
 
 鉄道こそが心理的な地理を変え、経済を変え、産業革命を真の「革命」にし
 たのです。
 
 
 一方、1940年代半ばにコンピュータが出現して始まったIT革命は、今日ま
 でのプロセスを高速化・ルーティン化したに過ぎず、コンピュータは産業革
 命の蒸気機関に当たるといえます。
 
 ではIT革命における「鉄道」は何でしょう?
 
 それは「eコマース」であり、心理的な地理を消し、あらゆる企業がグロー
 バル化し、経済が変わったのです。
 
 鉄道の誕生後、電報や写真、光学機器や農業機械といった、蒸気機関とは無
 縁の新産業が登場したように、IT革命における新産業は、バイオテクノロ
 ジーのように萌芽を見せているもの以外に、続々と生まれることが予想でき
 るのです。
 
 
 つまり、その新産業=「イノベーション」は、すでに熟知された分野以外で
 起こるのであり、従来のように専門家が研究開発するアプローチでは生まれ
 にくいのです。 
 
 そこで、今日必要とされているのが、科学技術に優れた感性を持ち、知的好
 奇心が旺盛な、専門外の「テクノロジスト(=知識労働と肉体労働の両方を
 行う人)」なのです。
 
 
 そして、技術開発の中心は、一部の天才ではなく、大量の有能な人材と大量
 の資金を有する既存の企業であり、企業はイノベーションを行う組織を構築
 し、技術をマネジメントすることが不可欠となります。
 
 企業が新技術によるイノベーションを興すためには、「技術観察(テクノロ
 ジー・モニタリング)」が重要です。
 
 新技術の影響を事前に予測しようとする「技術評価(テクノロジー・アセス
 メント)」では、間違った技術を奨励したり、有効な技術を抑制する恐れが
 あることを、歴史が物語っています。
 
 
 かつてテイラーの作業分析により、肉体労働の生産性が50倍に増加し、生
 産性革命が起きました。
 
 今後は、イノベーションを行う、知識労働の生産性の向上こそが鍵となりま
 す。
 
 我らテクノロジスト自身が、知能労働者としての知識、責任、生産性を身に
 つけることが、すなわちこれからの50年において、世界をリードする原動力
 となるのです。
 ----------------------------------
 ◇ カンドコロ! ◇
 
 21世紀の工場にも、数多くの機械が並ぶが、工場の本質は機械ではない。
 
 その本質は、4つの新しいコンセプトである。
 
 第1に、統計的品質管理(SQC)が、工場の社会構造を変える。
 
 第2に、活動基準原価計算(ABC)が、製造上の決定を事業上の決定とし
 て行わせる。
 
 第3に、フレキシブル生産が、標準化と柔軟性を同時に実現する。
 
 第4に、システム・アプローチが、物をつくるという物理的プロセスとして
 の製造を、価値創造のプロセス(経済的プロセス)に組み込む。
 
 これらの理論はそれぞれに独自の道具と言語を持つが、これらの4つのコン
 セプトが共に機能するとき、人と機械、時間と金、標準化と柔軟性、機能と
 システムという、これまで工場を悩ませてきた諸々の対立を解決するのだ。


───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 自らをマネジメントし、知識労働の生産性=質の向上に責任を持て。
 
 歴史に学び、社会を知り、明日を「技術」で拓け。
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 炎 | 炎 | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 プロローグ 未知なるものをいかにして体系化するか
 Part1 文明の変革者としての技術
  1章 仕事と道具
  2章 古代の技術改革に学ぶべき教訓
  3章 近代を生み出したものは何か
  4章 IT革命は産業革命になれるか
 Part2 技術のマネジメント
  5章 知識労働の生産性
  6章 ベンチャーのマネジメント
  7章 つくるだけでは終わらない-製造の新理論
  8章 技術をマネジメントする
 Part3 イノベーションの方法論
  9章 方法論としての起業家精神
  10章 イノベーションのための組織と戦略
  11章 既存の企業におけるイノベーション
  12章 イノベーションの機会はどこにあるのか
 Part4 世界観の転換
  13章 分析から知覚へ
  14章 知識の意味を問う
  15章 ポスト資本主義社会の到来
 エピローグ インタビュー「新技術は世界をどう変えつつあるか」

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