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September 14, 2005

図面って、どない描くねん!

zumennttedonai
 【今週の一冊】
 ●『図面って、どない描くねん!』
現場設計者が教えるはじめての機械製図

  著:山田 学(日刊工業新聞社)
   2005.08 / ¥2,310

-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆
 『寸法を記入していくには論理が必要です。
   寸法基準や機能基準の決め方から、そこから展開して、機能と加工を
    考慮し論理立てて寸法を記入していけば、図面が完成するのです。』
-----------------------------------
 自分でも日々、図面を書きますし、後輩の検図もしているのですが、果たし
 て「正しい」製図ができているかといえば・・はなはだアヤシイ。
 
 照査欄にサインをしたものの、現場のおっちゃんに「なんやねん!この図面
 は!」と怒鳴られて、設計者と頭を下げることも度々です。
 
 むかーし、学生時代に図面の授業で読んで以来、我流で書きなぐってきたこ
 とを反省しつつ、JIS製図の基本を学びたいと思います。
 
 
 CADでの作図が基本となった今、操作方法さえ分かれば「図」そのものは
 比較的簡単に描けます。
 
 しかし、大切なことは、「図」そのものを描くことではなく、「意図」を描
 くこと、つまり設計者の意思を製作者に確実に伝えることです。
 
 なれば、良い図面とは、1.正確に 2.簡潔に 3.平易に 設計情報が
 伝達できるものなのです。
 
 
 まず、「正確」であるために、ルールに従った作図法が必要です。
 
 例えば、かくれ線(破線)を避けるために「断面図」を使う場合でも、JISで
 は「補強のリブ」「軸」「ボルト」「ナット」などは切断しません。
 
 また、表面粗さの表記方法は、02年にJISが改定されていますから、新JIS
 に対応した社外のメーカーに、「▽▽▽」なんていう、昭和の記号を描いて
 出していては伝わりません。(というかハズカシイ。)
 
 
 「正確さ」のキーとなるのが、寸法記入の手順です。
 
 寸法線は、単純に端から順番に記入してはなりません!
 
 まず組立図を見て、自問します。
 
 ・どこが基準か?:一番大事な取り付け面=加工基準面から明示する
 ・どこが機能的に重要か?:機能的に重要な基準を次に描く
 ・加工の順序は?:穴径を決めれば、「その長さは?」と問う
 ・加工方法は?:機能に応じて表面仕上げを都度記入する
 
 本書では、実際に画を描くところから仕上げまで、どのように寸法線を記入
 するか、追体験することで「思考の流れ」を体感できます。
 
 
 「簡潔」であるためには、投影法や断面を利用して、できるだけ少ない図で
 すっきりと書き上げねばなりません。
 
 また、寸法公差をギチギチに入れるのではなく、必要な機能に応じて「幾何
 公差」を駆使することで、設計意図を明確に伝え、余計な手戻りや不具合を
 抑えることも大切です。
 
 
 一方、「平易」であるためには、例えば対象図形で、確かに簡略できる場合
 でも、加工者が「分かりやすく」「勘違いしにくい」ようにと、あえて重複
 する描き方をすることもあります。
 
 テクニックを駆使しつつ、テクニックにおぼれることなく、誰が見ても分か
 る図面を描くことこそが、「目的」に適うのです。
 
 
 今年ももうしばらくすると、私の部署にも新人君が配属されます。
 
 これまでは見よう見真似で覚えてもらっていた製図ですが、これからは「図
 面って、こないして描くねん!」と、本書を渡したいと思います。
 ----------------------------------
 ◇ カンドコロ! ◇
 
 ある部品が、図面上で直線、円あるいは平面で示されている場合、加工者は
 できるだけ指示通り加工しようとする。
 
 しかし、完全な直線、円、平面に仕上げることは不可能だ。
 
 そこで、どの程度まで正しく仕上げたらよいか、逆に、どの程度までの狂い
 であれば許されるのか、明確に定義し、許容値を表示したものが「幾何公差
 」だ。
 
 設計をする上で、より高品質・高精度が要求され、かつ開発期間・製造時間
 の短縮や、設計・製図のグローバル化が進んだことで、特に幾何公差の重要
 性が注目されている。
 
 アメリカの大企業では、業務を数日間中断させてまで、技術者に幾何公差の
 講習会を受講させ、レベルアップに努めている。
 
 対して、今の日本企業の多くでは、残念ながら幾何公差の認識は、大きく世
 界から遅れている。


───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 過去の図面に右に倣えでは、「正しい」「良い」図面にならない。
 「なぜ作るか」の信念を、寸法線に語らせろ。
 
 「寸法漏れのチェック」で検図を終わらせるな。
 設計者の「志」を炙り出せ。
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 炎 | 炎 | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 第1章 図面って、どない描くねん!
 第2章 寸法線って、どんな種類があるねん!
 第3章 寸法公差ってなんやねん!
 第4章 寸法ってどこから入れたらええねん!
 第5章 幾何公差ってなんやねん!
 第6章 この記号はどない使うねん!
 第7章 こんな図面の描き方がわからへん!
 第8章 図面管理ってなんやねん!

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