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February 01, 2006

人工臓器は、いま

 【今週の一冊】
 ●『人工臓器は、いま』
  暮らしのなかにある最先端医療の姿

  編:日本人工臓器学会(はる書房)
   2003.11 / ¥2,100
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆


 『多くのエンジニアと多くの医師の連係プレイが

               必要不可欠な領域が人工臓器の世界です。』


-----------------------------------
 我々エンジニアがものづくりをするのは、「社会の多くの人たちの生活を、
 日一日と向上させていく」(松下幸之助)ためです。
 
 ならば、人々の命を救い、日常の苦しみから開放させる「人工臓器」という
 ものづくりは、その究極の一つと言えます。
 
 医療現場に展開される、最先端のものづくりを覗き見てみましょう。
 
 
 代表的な人工臓器として、「人工心臓」が挙げられます。
 
 心臓は言うまでもなく、全身に血液を循環させる「ポンプ」の働きをする臓
 器であり、動作としては灯油用の手動ポンプと同じ原理です。
 
 こう書くと、単純な機構のような気がしますが、人工的につくることはそん
 なに甘くはありません。
 
 
 心臓という「ポンプ」の性能は、5~7L/分の血液を全身に送り出してお
 り、現在の技術で実現可能な人工心臓では、最大10L/分程度の能力があ
 ります。
 
 ところが、我々の心臓は、運動時には15L/分以上の送出能力を有する「
 可変」ポンプなのです。
 
 
 また、人工心臓は、生体からすれば「異物」ですから、血液が触れると通常
 固まってしまい、動作を邪魔したり、血液の塊が脳や他の臓器の障害となる
 「血栓」を引き起こします。
 
 そして当然、24時間休みなく、しかも数年間という長期間、動き続けなけれ
 ばなりません。
 
 例えば自動車ならば、10年間で10万キロ走ると寿命となりますが、もしも不
 眠不休、時速50キロで運転したならば、わずか3ヶ月で寿命に達する計算に
 なります。
 
 いかに過酷な使用条件で、耐久性が求められるかがわかるでしょう。
 
 
 更に、高効率であることも、人工心臓の重要な性能です。
 
 心臓の平常時の仕事率は1ワット程度であるのに対し、人工心臓の機械効率
 が5~10%であるので、残りの損失はすべて「熱」となり、これが体内に
 放出されることになります。
 
 発熱量が大きければ、周辺がやけどをしたり、体温が上昇して危険な状態に
 なることは明らかです。
 
 
 このように、機械としての機能や効率、耐久性、生体適合性という材料技術
 、あるいは体内で長期間もつための充電池や制御用コンピュータなど、非常
 に広範囲かつ難度の高い研究開発が必要です。
 
 そして、この技術が安価に、必要な方に提供できるねばならない点も、忘れ
 てはなりません。
 
 
 一口に人工臓器といっても、心臓を始めとする循環系臓器、肝臓などの代謝
 系臓器、五感の感覚器系臓器、皮膚や骨などの構造系臓器など、求められる
 技術は際限なく広がっています。
 
 豊富な写真と共に語られる、人工臓器の世界の高度な技術に驚くと共に、そ
 れでもなおたどり着けぬ、人体の精緻な構造の不思議さを、今更ながら実感
 させられた一冊です。
 
 ----------------------------------
 ◇ カンドコロ! ◇
 
 小型の人工心臓として注目されているのが「定常流(連続流)型ポンプ」。
 
 遠心ポンプや軸流ポンプなどのターボポンプを利用したタイプで、「脈を打
 たない」人工心臓だ。
 
 手術などで遠心ポンプは用いられているが、人工心臓としてはまだ未完成。
 
 問題となるのが、回転軸のシール部の寿命が、数日であり、血栓ができやす
 いからだ。
 
 究極の遠心ポンプ人工心臓として研究が進められているものに、磁気浮上型
 遠心ポンプがある。
 
 「軸がない遠心ポンプならシールも必要ない」という発想だ。
 
 リニアモータの人工心臓版ともいえる、高度なメカトロニクス技術の結晶で
 ある。

───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 
 人体に学び、人体を模倣し、人体を超えよ。
 必要な機能とメカニズムを知った上で、代替手段を考えよう。
 
 学際領域を果敢に攻めよ。
 医学と工学、産官学の連携がキーとなる。

-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 炎 | 火 | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 序章 はじめて知る人工臓器
 第1章 暮らしの中の人工臓器
 第2章 休むことなく体中に血液をめぐらせる
    ―ハイテクメカと機能性材料が可能にする循環系人工臓器の世界
 第3章 体内の化学反応の調整と体液の浄化
    ―生体機能の解明が生み出した代謝系人工臓器の世界
 第4章 音や光を守りたい感覚情報の脳への橋渡し
    ―五感を取り込み電気信号に変える感覚器系人工臓器の世界
 第5章 からだを形づくる、ささえる、まもる
    ―材料の特性に依存した構造系人工臓器の世界
 終章 人工臓器の未来図を描く―大学・企業開発の現場から

|

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Comments

やまさん、こんにちは。

やまさんの読書傾向と外れてる気がして、つまらないと思われたら申し訳ないなと思っていたのですが、"燃えるゲージ| 炎 | 炎 | 火 |"で安心しました。

私は技術士試験の業績論文の将来展望で人工心臓について述べました。
この本は口頭試験対策として購入ました。
試験官の知らない人工心臓ばなしで時間を稼ぐ戦略だったのです。
さて、口答試験では試験管がたまたま人工心臓の専門家で・・・。

・・・また、お会いしたときに話しましょう。

では。

Posted by: SUGI | February 01, 2006 at 05:40 PM

SUGIさん、こんにちは。

今回の書籍を紹介いただき、ありがとうございました。
なかなか自分では手に取らない分野でしたが、
非常に興味深く読ませて頂きました。

材料、機構、制御などの機械要素も究極を目指し、
それを生態適合する「やわらかい」メカに仕上げる。

非常に難しく、しかし取り組みがいのある「ものづくり」
であることを知ることができました。

「燃えるゲージ」の「炎」が1個半分になっているのは、
ちょっと生々しくて、読んでいて血の気が失せるというか、
手の力が抜けるというか、すこーしニガテなところが
あったもので・・(^_^;)

技術士第二次試験、ご苦労様でした。
間もなく朗報が聞けることを、楽しみにしております。

Posted by: やまさん | February 03, 2006 at 05:18 PM

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