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December 27, 2006

大工道具の日本史

Daikudougu
 【今週の一冊】
 ●『大工道具の日本史』

  著:渡邉 晶(吉川弘文館)
  2004.11 / ¥1,785

----ものづくりを応援!技術士やまさんの「えんぢに屋本舗」-----

 ◆ 燃える一言 ◆


 『手道具の刃先を通して伝わってくる、個性ある木材繊維の多様性を
 
     知ることは、木の建築を生産するうえで、
     
              最も基本に据えるべき経験ではないだろうか』


-----------------------------------

 日ごろは金属や樹脂の加工に追われている やまさん ですが、今回は「木」
 の加工、大工道具の歴史を取り上げてみましょう。
 
 人類が木材の加工に用いた最初の道具は、言わずもがな、石器であり、今日
 の道具の区分で言えば、「斧」と「鑿(のみ)」です。
 
 縄文時代の約6000年前から、4000年前にかけて、平地形式や高床式の建築が
 これらの道具によって作られました。
 
 
 弥生時代には斧と鑿の材質が、石から鉄に移り変わり、生産性が飛躍的に向
 上します。
 
 実験によると、径20センチメートルの松を石斧で伐ると12分かかったところ
 が、鉄斧では3分で伐採できたそうですから、この生産性は、以後19世紀に
 至るまでほとんど変化がなかった程の飛躍だったのです。
 
 
 そして、6世紀後半に伝来した、仏教建築をつくる主要な道具として、鉄斧
 と鉄鑿のほかに、鋸とカンナ(槍鉋)が加わり、早くも基本的な道具の編成
 が確立したのです。
 
 これらの道具が揃ったことで、中世にかけて接合法(継ぎ手)も進歩を遂げ、
 現在にも残る仏教建築のように、材料を節約しつつ強固な接合方法が編み出
 されていったのです。
 
 
 木材加工道具のもう一つのトピックは、中世の14世紀から15世紀にかけて、
 素材加工において使われた「オガ」です。
 
 それまでは斧や鑿と楔を使って、原木を割って角材を作っていたのに対し、
 二人一組で使う大型製材鋸(オガ)を使う製材へと、技術革新が進み、幅広
 な薄板材や正確な角材を作り出すことが可能となりました。
 
 また、この時期、カンナも剣状の刃を押して使う槍鉋と、現在のようにカン
 ナ身を溝に押し込んで使う「鉋(つきがんな)」に分化し、加工精度が上が
 っていったのです。
 
 
 近世の18世紀後半から19世紀始めにかけては、鋸・鑿・鉋の加工精度は更に
 高まり、生産効率を上げるために作業姿勢が「座位」から「立位」へと移行
 していきます。
 
 ちなみに、こうして生産性が上昇する一方で、大工の実質賃金は、15世紀か
 ら19世紀までで、約4分の1にまで減少してしまい、19世紀前半の大工は、
 エンゲル係数(食費の割合)が70と、食べるのがやっと、という状況でした。
 効率アップと賃金カット。
 このころから「技術者」は、厳しい仕事をしていたようです・・。
 
 
 そして、近代、19世紀末から20世紀前半にかけて、木の建築を作る技術は、
 加工の精度において最高の水準に達し、一人前の建築大工が使う標準道具は、
 約180点を数えるまでに、多様に分化したのです。
 
 現在は、電動工具が建築現場に入り込み、これらの道具も使われないものが
 現れてきています。
 
 しかし、わずか数十年の電動工具の歴史の前に、先人が木のぬくもりを大切
 に築いてきた「道具」の変遷を知ることは、木工建築には欠かせないのでは
 ないでしょうか。

-----------------------------------
 ◇ カンドコロ! ◇
 
 17世紀始めの古典建築書『匠明』の中に、建築専門工人の指導者が見につけ
 る能力や技術に関して、「五意達者にして、昼夜不怠(おこたらず)」とい
 う記述がある。
 
 「五意」とは、「式尺の墨かね」「算合」「手仕事」「絵用」「彫物」のこ
 とを指す。
 
 ・「式尺」は、設計上の基準である木割
 ・「墨かね」は、部材に対する墨付けの技術
 ・「算合」は、積算
 ・「手仕事」は、道具を使いこなす技術
 ・「絵用」と「彫物」は、建築装飾の下絵を描き、それを彫り上げる技術
 
 をそれぞれ表現している。
 
 「式尺」「墨かね」「算合」は数理的能力、「絵用」は芸術的能力、「手仕
 事」「彫物」は手をはじめとする身体能力を必要としていることが分かる。
 
 「五意」が文字として明文化されたのは近世であるが、建築専門工人が出現
 した当初から、工人のリーダーには高い能力・技術が求められていたのだ。

───────────────────────────────────
 ◆ 熱い行動 ◆
 道具に歴史あり。
 数千年前の技術者に敬意を表し、淘汰・洗練された道具の理屈を知ろう。
 
 電動化・自動化で「五意」を忘れるな。
 切れ味、手触りを忘れたものづくりは、必ず衰えていく。
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 燃えるゲージ ◆ | 炎 | 火 |   | (炎3つが満点)
-----------------------------------
 手道具の歴史と人類の未来―プロローグ
 木の建築をつくる技術と道具
 大工道具の誕生―旧石器から縄文時代
 鉄器の導入と大工道具の発展―弥生・古墳時代
 渡来した新しい建築技術―古代・中世
 大工たちの近世
 多様化する大工道具と技術
 大工道具の一万年―エピローグ
-----------------------------------
 ◆ 関連ページ ◆
 ・著者所属 竹中大工道具館
 ・出版社 吉川弘文館
 ・アマゾン 『大工道具の日本史』
 
----ものづくりを応援!技術士やまさんの「えんぢに屋本舗」-----

|

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